Coon Revoked

"The Races of Europe" was a book authored by the American Anthropologist Carleton Stevens Coon and published by Macmillan Publishers (USA), in 1939.

Due to the governmental nature of the United states of America, as Europe went under an academical battle of ethnic assortment, Political anthropology played an important role in the interests of the nation and its people in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with entertaining insights to offer to the public.
National identity, ethnic conflicts, the meaning of race and why should a group of people identify themselves with a particular race, were just a few depositions of debate.

Perpetrators of this field, in the early stage, have tried to shape, arbitrate and abash miscellaneous people just in order to transcend those of themselves in an extraordinary fashion.
Because of its popularity, Carleton S. Coon's atrophied writings have become 'valuable' and invoked by fanatics on a racial assignment.

Hereafter, acknowledged to a new tool called the Internet, one has the possibility to read what kind of literature foreign authors have written about someone else's country of origin, to the point of revoking such accusations.

The following column will address to the letters of Carleton S. Coon "Chapter XI: The Mediterranean World (15) The Iberian Peninsula" (Portugal), which was presented to the general audience under adulterated Names, Numbers, but most importantly, Historical events.

For a better comprehension and exposition of this refute, Carleton S. Coon's writings will be separated by intervals and dealt singularly, accordingly.
As will, sources will be employed to a coordinated date as those of the book entitled "The Races of Europe" by Carleton S. Coon.

Coon writes:
"Portugal is, on the whole, fully as Mediterranean in race as is Spain and, perhaps, in some respects, it is more so."

The Truth:
Portugal is not wholly, nor fully Mediterranean in race. The simple fact that Portugal is the only country in Southern-Europe, which has zero boundaries to the Mediterranean world, people or history should instantly discredit the idea of the Portuguese being solely Mediterranean in race.

Carleton S. Coon flaunted the ratio in a form to make the Portuguese appear solely Mediterranean, as the reader is about to bystand.

Coon writes:
"The chief differences between the two countries are: that the Portuguese are almost uniformly brunet in pigmentation."

The truth:
The Portuguese are not uniformly Brunette in pigmentation, although the great majority are indeed of Brunette coloration. But as so as the rest of Europe.
Portugal exhibits ~20% of Blondinism diffused through out the country. However, it is in Tás-os-Montes and Minho where such pigmentation is recorded at a higher frequency.

"In brief: The country is sharply heterogeneous when it comes to the distribution of Blonde hair. At the plateau of Beirão, in the mountains of Trás-os-Montes and continental Minho, the population is significantly Blonde. In the coastline regions and the plains of Alentejo is where there is a relatively small percentage of this class of hair.
The adjacent Islands exhibit an even percentage, where the district of Angra do Heroísmo (♀) presents another excess of Blonde hair." 
[1] [Translated]

Coon writes:
"...and that there are no regions in Portugal in which brachycephaly is as important as in the Asturias and Galicia. In fact, Portugal contains some of the lowest cephalic index means on the continent of Europe."

The truth:
It is true that Brachycephaly is not prevalent, among the population.
However, the Cephalic index of the Portuguese is best divided by two cranial types of a biquadratic equation.
Respectively, Dolicocephalic and Mesocephalic.

In a sample of 11.658 male adults, Dolichocephaly was established by 53.33%, Mesocephaly by 41.26% and Barchicephaly by 5.42%.

Below is the table, measured by Prof. Eusébio Tamagnini in "A propósito do Indice Cefálico dos Portugueses" (1954)

Dolichocephaly.... 53.33%
Mesocephaly....... 41.26%
Brachycephaly...... 5.42%

In another study, of 350 individuals divided by gender (200 males & 150 females), Dolichocephaly was established in 131 males and 89 females, corresponding to 65.50% and 59.33%, respectively.
Mesocephaly, by 61 males and 54 females, corresponding to 30.50% and 36.00%.
And Brachycephaly by 8 males and 7 females, corresponding to 4.00% and 4.67%, of the test subjects.

Below is the table, measured by Prof. Luís de Pina in "Centro de Estudos Demográficos do Instituto Nacional de Estatística" (1931).

Cephalic Index                   |   ♂  |    %   |   ♀  |  %
Dolichocephaly (x-76.9)...... | 131 | 65.50 |  89  | 59.33
Mesocephaly (77-81.9)....... | 061 | 30.50 |  54  | 36.00
Brachycephaly (82-x).......... | 008 | 04.00 |  07  | 04.67
                                         | 200 |100.00| 150 |100.00

And as Prof. António Armindo Themido concluded, in his book "Sobre alguns Caracteres Antropometricos da População Portuguesas" (1931).

"The Distribution of the different individuals from which the Cephalic Index is divided by, shows us that the Portuguese of both genders are neatly Dolicho-Mesocephalic, registering a small percentage of Brachycephaly." [6] [Translated]

Coon writes:
"Historically, Portugal has long been divided into two parts, a northern and a southern, with the river Tagus forming the boundary between the two. In pre-Roman times the Lusitanians lived in the northern half of the country, while other tribes inhabited the south."

The truth:
Portugal was never divided into two parts, nor historically or politically. Withal, Portugal didn't exist during the Iron-Age.

The Lusitanians as to allocation, were located at-most in the Center of the country, above the Tagus river and below the Douro valley, where Lusitania bordered the regions of Spain, Extremadura and small parts of Salamanca.

This letterless find should be observed. Carleton S. Coon fails to enumerate what other tribes inhabited the South, after summoning their place.

Coon writes:
"Later on, the Keltic invasions affected only the north, as did the inroads of the Germans."

The truth:
Both the Northern and the Southern regions of Portugal were affected by the invasion of the Celts.
The North, by the Gallaeci who came reside in modern day Galicia, Northern Portugal and Asturias.
And the South, with the Celtici indwelling present day Alentejo and Algarve along the Turduli radiating the littoral bank of the Portuguese Extremadura.

Briefly, after citing the Celts, Carleton S. Coon leaps forward with the Germanic invasions, neglecting the people who gave Language, Culture and Religion to the Portuguese. The Romans.
In fact, Carleton S. Coon doesn't reference the Romans at all.

Only after Roman forthcoming did the Germanics arrive, with the Suebi eventually settling in the North of the country and the Visigoths in the South.
Bis. Both groups ultimately merged altogether, after their Kingdoms attenuation.

Coon writes:
"On the other hand, the Arabs and Berbers settled mostly in the south. Relations between Moslems and Christians lacked, in Portugal, the bitterness manifested in Spain, and many Portuguese Moslems were baptized at the time of the expulsion."

The truth:
The Portuguese are not Muslims, nor a Portuguese was ever a Muslism.
The Portuguese are descendants of the people who expelled the Muslims.

Such poorly written paragraph, that would give "Ignorant" a real epigraph for Carleton S. Coon.

Portugal was in respect the first country to quench the Moors, so that as of 1279, there were no Muslims inland.
Carleton S. Coon ignorantly does not recognize the Reconquista in Portugal.

- In 1064, Fernando I of Léon (el Magno) starts the cleansing against the Moors, conquering Viseu and Coimbra.
- By 1147, Dom Afonso Henriques I of Portugal (o Conquistador) establishes the very first boarders of the country, conquering southwards as much of present day Algarve, Portugal.
- Followed by, in 1189, his son and successor to the throne D. Sancho I of Portugal (o Povoador) starts to populate the conquered land by his rightfully father.
- In 1249, under D. Afonso III of Portugal (o Bolonhês), the city of Faro is conquered and the Moors are completely expelled.
- As of 1279 the cleansing is over and D. Dinis I of Portugal (o Poeta), to assure the Moors were not to enter the kingdom of Portugal, installs the 'Order of Christ' after the Knights Templar dissolution ordered by Philippe IV of France (le Bel).

Fig.1 Map of the Reconquista in Portugal, and the timetable of the expulsion of the Moors.

Portugal thereupon sees an homogenization of Cultural, Religious and Ethnic affinity, where in all fairness, one can only declare the Portuguese of being Anti-Moors.

It makes no sense to talk about baptism in Portugal, because Portugal is older than Spain and fruit of the Reconquista. Spain, a collection of kingdoms absorbed over time.
To accuse the Portuguese of being baptized Moors, would be violating the great deeds of the Portuguese nobility, the victories of European history and the formation of a Portuguese identity.

What started out as a the 'Reconquista' in Portugal, soon after battles with its neighboring brothers, the Spanish. In 1414, it shifted to 'Conquista' of new land.

Portugal's narrative is perhaps best campaigned on fights against the Moors where these are seen as antagonists, best depicted in the national character of Portuguese Vainglory, History, Culture and Literature, wither such depictions can be witnessed and celebrated in paintings, monuments and poems, etc.

Fig.2 Painting of Afonso I of Portugal stomping a Moor.        Fig.3 Statue of Geraldo Geraldes decapitating a Moor.      Fig.4  Evora's escutcheon knight beheading two Moors.     Fig.5 Santiago do Cacém's coat of arms defeating a Moor.
      Fig.6 Gothic sculpture of Santiago Maior massacring a group of Moors.                  Fig.7 Small excerpt from the National poem "Os Lusíadas" dispatching the Moors.

Coon writes:
"...Again as in Spain, the prevailing hair color is dark brown, which amounts to 68 per cent of the total; blond and red hair is limited to 2 per cent."

The truth:
Dark brown hair accounts for 42.57% males 40.65% females.

"Dark Hair. This is the class of hair that corresponds to the examined population, at the max of it's frequency; the percentages are by effect 42.57 (♂) and 40.65 (♀)." [1] [Translated]

Medium brown hair accounts for 37.82% males and 34.50% females.

"Medium hair. Medium hair is represented by the general percentages of 37.82 (♂) and 34.50 (♀)." [1] [Translated]

Blonde hair accounts for 17.75% males and 23.23% females.

"Blond hair. Considering the entire male population, we verify a median percentage of the individuals with Blonde hair around 17.75%, whilst that percentage is a little more elevated for females, 23,23%." [1] [Translated]

Red hair accounts for 1.86% males and 1.62% females.

"Red hair. This class of hair is represented, in our population, by a small number of individuals ... corresponding to 1.86% for males and 1.62% for females, respectively." [1] [Translated]

Coon writes:
"Eye color, with 7 per cent of "blue," 15 per cent of "medium," 78 per cent of "dark," shows some correlation with latitude, which is not as clear in the cases of skin color and hair color. Blue eyes run to 13 per cent in the north, and as low as 1 and 2 per cent in the south. Dark eyes seem to range inversely from 71 per cent to 87 per cent. Portugal contains no more than the traditional 25 per cent of incipient blondism common to many groups of Mediterraneans."

The truth:
Dark-Blue eyes account for 6.03% for males and 5.85% for females.

"Dark-Blue eyes. Dark-Blue eyes are represented by small percentages,  6.03% (♂) and 5.85% (♀)." [1] [Translated]

Light eyes (Light-Blue & Grayish-Blue) account for 17.23% for males and 15.81% for females.

"Light eyes. This category of eyes is represented in our statistics by the following values: 17.23 (♂) and 14.81 (♀)." [1] [Translated]

Medium or Mixed eyes (Green, Hazel, Amber or Light-Brown) account for 37.06% of males and 33.23% for females.

"Medium eyes. The observed percentages of this class of eyes are 37.06% for the males, and 33.23% for the females." [1] [Translated]

Dark eyes (Brown) account for 39.68% of males and 46.11% for females.

"Dark eyes. The percentages relative to this class of eyes are respectively 39.68 (♂) and 46.11 (♀)." [1] [Translated]

Coon writes:
"In a large series of modern Portuguese crania,123 while all are typically Mediterranean in morphology, a clear difference may be seen between several distinct types. In the first place, the head length has two definite modes at 179 mm. and 186 mm., while the head breadth has modes at 132 mm. and 141 mm."

The truth:
The Portuguese crania by Length is 193 for males and 182 for females. By Breadth, 147 for males and 139 for females.
The mean values for both genders under Length and Breath are therefore 188 mm and 144 mm.

"In the Portuguese of both sexes, the median values for the length of the head, are 193.86 for males and 182,493 for females, having statistical significance the sexual difference of the average."

"In the Portuguese of both sexes, the median values for the breadth of the head, are 147.265 for males and 139.354 for females, having equally statistical significance the sexual difference of the average." [6] [Translated]

Coon writes:
The cephalic index has modes at 70, 73. and 75. From this evidence, as from that of stature, we are led to the conclusion that two or more different Mediterranean strains are involved in the Portuguese population. This conclusion is strengthened by the fact that the orbital index of Portuguese crania is bimodal, with modes at 85 and 88. There is both a low-orbitted and a moderately high-orbitted element in this population."

The truth:
The Cephalic index has modes at 75.97 for males and 76.42 for females.

"The median values, observed in the Cephalic index of the Portuguese, are 75.97 for males and 76.42 for females, having no statistical significance the sexual difference of the average." [6] [Translated]

Coon writes:
"Non-Mediterranean elements in the Portuguese population are rare and of little importance. A few Nordics are scattered throughout but are particularly concentrated in the north. Traces of Dinaric blood, as we have already seen, may likewise be found on the northern coast. Negroid blood, introduced into Portugal through the medium of freed slaves, has largely been absorbed. The liberated negroes settled mostly in the cities, where negroes from the Portuguese colonies are still to be seen in some numbers. The liberality of the Portuguese social attitude toward persons of different race has prevented the retention, as in Arabia and the United States, of a stigmatized negroid class. On the whole, the absorption of negroes by the Portuguese has had no appreciable effect on the racial position of the country. Portugal remains, as it has been since the days of the Muge shell-fish eaters, classic Mediterranean territory."

The truth:
The Portuguese never absorbed any sort of Negroid blood.
This fetishism for race mixing was propagated by American authors, product of "Britannica the 11th Edition" and later transplanted onto "The Races of Europe", along other academical contents.
Now, it has become a phenomena among anthropologists and a chat of debate on the Internet, where entities try to prove such ridiculous assumption.

An American version of reality expressed on their Anglo-encyclopedias, because no one in Portugal has ever heard of any Portuguese mixing with any 'freed slaves'.
Curiously enough, Anthropologists still refrain to talk about, and in fact, try to conceal the presence of Negroid slaves in England, France, Spain and other Colonial powers.

The few existing Slaves in Portugal did not settle anywhere in the country. They were segregated to captivity in Lisbon, where the majority eventually died of maladaptation sickness, with the rest being quickly commercialized to Brazil, to work in the sugar cane plantation.

Carleton S. Coon at the end of this paragraph, briefly contradicts himself.
If the Portuguese populace had absorbed negroid blood, then by then, the population would have by default shifted.

"The Portuguese do not have hematic affinities with the African Negroes."
- Professor A. Mendes Corrêa, António

Coon writes:

"Fig. 3: A metrically and morphologically perfect example of the late Neolithic Megalithic or Long Barrow race, the modern Atlanto-Mediterranean, from Azer in Portugal."

"Fig. 4: A very dark-skinned, large-headed mesocephalic Mediterranean from Beira Alta in Portugal, with heavy beard and body hair. Many of the Portugese belong to this more robust Mediterranean sub-variety, which is also common in southern Italy, and may have been one of the earliest Mediterranean elements to arrive in southwestern Europe."

"Fig. 4: A Portuguese from Tras os Montes, who shows strong Nordic tendencies. Nordics occur occasionally in northern Portugal as well as in northern Spain; from the days of the Keltic migrations onward, there have been Nordic invasions and settlement in the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula."

The truth:
Carleton S. Coon's Photographic supplement (Fig. #3) comes from 'Azer'.
This is obviously not true, since 'Azer' is not a location, a name, nor a toponym here to be found in Portugal.

If Carleton S. Coon lied about the name of a location, everything else written in "The Races of Europe" - Chapter XI: The Mediterranean World (15) The Iberian Peninsula, was also a lie.

"To what extend, and with what intensity, the indicated suggestions correspond to reality? Only ulterior studies can determine it, since our conclusions are solely based in data of singular individuals, separately considered and still unknown to the exact correlation of the different characters that our studies have been object of."
- Professor Barbosa Tamagnini, Eusébio

Disclaimer: One cannot irresponsibly attribute this delict to Carleton S. Coon alone, since his writings were a recycled collectanea written by former anthropologists.
The author(s) of this blog acknowledge Carleton S. Coon took a minute of his life to write a chapter for the Iberian Peninsula, but refuse to accept matriculated atrocities from his time.


  1. Inaccurately represented in foreign books, written by foreign authors with consumptive goals towards an ethnic group.
    Authors shouldn't embrace their status to propagate lies about people and countries, whom they wish to perceive it in a certain way.

    Carleton S. Coon is dead and so is his work.

    Great work.

  2. I enjoyed reading this. I never identified with what C. S. Coon said about us, either.

  3. you seem butthurt. Portos are the darkest people in Europe, that is observable.

    1. your an asshole fuckhead i have hazel eyes and light brown hair pink white skin and iam 6 feet 3 inches tall and iam from porto you dumbass

  4. Particularmente, eu não consigo entender as refutaçãoes presentes nesta página sobre a obra de Coon. Primeiro em momento algum, Coon diz que os portugueses são totalmente morenos em pigmentação. E qualquer um que ler a parte que ele fala sobre Portugal com atenção, perceberá que ele fala que a braquicefalia pode ser encontrada com alguma frequência no litoral norte de Portugal estando associada com alta estatura e certas característica morfológicas que indicam a infusão de um tipo racial dinárico que é bem comum na Itália e nos Balcãs. Ele também ressalta que alguns nórdicos estão espalhados por todo país estando particularmente mais concentrados no norte. Logo, em momento algum o mesmo afirma que os portugueses são 100% mediterrâneos em raça. Mas sim, que elementos não mediterrâneos são raros e de pouca importãncia. O que é de fato.

  5. Sobre a pigmentação da cor do cabelo: é preciso ressaltar que o autor em questão (Coon) toma como base o livro A Pigmentação dos Portugueses no qual Eusébio Barbosa Tagmanini afirma claramente que APENAS 2% DA PORTUGUESA É VERDADEIRAMENTE LOIRA E RUTILISMO ESTÁ LIMITADO Á 0,2% DA POPULAÇÃO ADULTA. Se alguém tiver dúvidas, é só digitar pelo livro no Google que facilmente irá encontrá-lo para fazer download. Acontece que o autor do blog tem provavelmente como referência para tais afirmações o livro "A Cor (A) do Cabêlo e dos Olhos nos Estudantes das Escolas Primárias Portuguesas" (1909/10-1915) do também Eusébio Tagmanini. Mas existem um erro crucial nisso, pois este livro em questão trata da população infanto-juvenil de Portugal que tende a apresentar pigmentação mais clara de cabelos.

  6. Obsevem que no capítulo Iberian Penisula de Races of Europe; Coon afirma que 29% da população da Espanha tem cabelo "black", e outros 68% apresentavam cabelos castanhos ou "brown", equanto que tons de "blondism" (loiros) são variavelmente visíveis em 17% da população. Vale lembrar que ele estava se referindo a península como um todo, pois logo depois, ele cita Catalunia e Portugal como exemplo de regiões que apresentam menos de 25% de "blondism" na cor dos olhos como a maioria das regiões mediterrâneas. E logo depois ele diz (traduzindo) que Portugal assim como Espanha, possui 30% de cabelos negros, 68% de cabelos castanhos e apenas 2% decabelos loiros ou ruivos. O que ele deixa implícito e que até pode ser um erro; é que variados tons de loiro escuro quase castanho claro podem ser encontrados em um adicional de um pouco mais de dez porcento da população portuguesa, assim como o castanho avermelhado e a presença de rutilismo na barba da população masculina. Apenas isso.

  7. Em outras palavras, Coon apenas reproduziu aquilo que outros antropólogos ibéricos já tinham escrito sobre os respectivos países. O mesmo acertou no que tange a cor da pele e dos olhos dos portugueses, e também acertou no índice cefálico. As conclusões são óbvias a partir disso. Portugal assim como o sul da Espanha são as regiões mais escuras de toda a Europa em termos de pigmentação da pele, do cabelo e da cor dos olhos. Em outras palavras, os portugueses assim como os valencianos e andaluzos, são ligeiramente mais morenos que os espanhóis do norte e que os italianos do sul. E também são mais significativamente escuros que os bascos(tanto espanhóis como franceses) e que os gregos.

  8. Se me permite a correção: Coon de fato errou no que tange a percentagem de olhos mistos (mixed eyes) na população portuguesa. E também errou no que tange a percentagem de cabelos com variáveis tons de loiro ou blondism; ou simplesmente omitiu, eu creio. Mas os portugueses são significamente mais escuros que os italianos do norte e que os bascos franceses e os gregos continentais (exceto gregos insulares). E ligeiramente mais escuros que os espanhóis do norte (incluindo os bascos espanhóis) e os italianos do sul. O que eu quis dizer é que os portugueses assim como os espanhóis do sul, são os mais homogeneamente morenos em pigmentação de todo o continente europeu. Mas ainda assim, o Coon comete um erro crucial ao afirmar que os portugueses são quase que uniformemente morenos em pigmentação".

  9. Mas sinceramente, eu não sei o quê que Coon escreveu de tão absurdo assim em relação aos portugueses. Ele apenas transcreveu tudo aquilo que Eusébio Tagmanini havia dito na sua obra A Pigmentação dos Portugueses. E convenhamos...os portugueses junto com os andaluzos são de longe, as populações mais escuras de toda Europa, quase que igualando aos norte-africanos berbéres na sua maioria. E isto é uma coisa que qualquer observador não muito atento consegue notar facilmente. Logo a crítica ao trabalho do mesmo é exagerada. Pois, os portugueses são mais escuros que os gregos, que os italianos do sul e que os espanhóis do norte de maneira até considerável.

  10. "Se reunirmos num só grupo os cabelos ruivos e os loiros, e num outro grupo os castanhos e os negros, vê-se que a população se reparte muito desigualmente; ao passe que os cabelos claros se acham representados por 2.24%, os cabelos escuros atingem 97.76% dos indivíduos observados."

    Fonte: "A pigmentação dos Portugueses" de Eusébio Tamagnini. Páginas 137 e 138. Volume 1, fasículo 3.

  11. Na verdade, os italianos da Sardenha, junto com os portugueses e os espanhóis do sul (andaluzos, valencianos...), formam o grupo dos europeus mais escuros em pigmentação. No caso, os sardenhos e os portugueses do sul são os que apresentam a maior predominância de olhos escuros segundo Coon. E os andaluzos são os que têm a maior predominância de pele cor de oliva ou trigueira. No que tange a cor do cabelo. O mesmo parece ser meio inconclusivo...Por exemplo, Coon diz que apenas 2% dos portugueses são loiros ou ruivos, e apenas 1% dos sardenhos também. Por outro lado, o mesmo afirma que um décimo da população andaluza possui variados tons de cabelo loiro ou ruivo...mas que apenas apenas 1 em cada 420 andaluzos é verdadeiramente loiro! Não parece bem contraditório? O que aconteceu não foi erro dele, mas sim das fontes que o mesmo usou. Eusébio Tamagnini conta apenas os 2% de portugueses com cabelos verdadeiramente loiros. Mas não toma em conta o adicional de 15% da população adulta que apresenta variados tons de cabelo loiro e de rutilismo na barba e no cabelo. Incluindo todos os demais na categoria de "castanho-escuro". O que levou Coon a conclusão equivocada de os portugueses são uniformemente morenos em pigmentação. O que não é tão verdadeiro assim. E não! Coon não errou no que toca ao índice cefálico dos lusitanos que de fato é o mais baixo de toda Europa: 76,4. E também não errou no que toca a cor dos olhos dos portugueses. Ele apenas reproduziu fielmente as fontes de estudos antropológicos de autores portugueses renomados. Falta também, saber interpretar o texto de maneira coerente, sem sentimentos de nacionalismo ferido e ufanismo. Ele fala das variações do índice cefálico em alguns lugares. Simples assim

  12. "The cephalic index mean for the entire nation is 76.4" (fonte: Races of Europe - Iberian Peninsula). Onde está o erro de Coon?

  13. Os portugueses são de longe a nação mais escura da Europa e qualquer pessoa que não seja cega percebe isso. Como disse um comentário anterior: "you seem buthurt!"